Definitions
The following terms are used in the analysis of errors:

x  u = the difference between any result and the mean

pxu = probability that the difference between any result and the mean will be greater than the number of standard deviations (# SD) difference measured

pxu = complement of Confidence Interval, = 1  CI, when considering the difference between any result and the mean

a b = difference between two results

pab = probability that the difference between two results will be greater than the number of standard deviations (# SD) difference measured

pab = complement of Confidence Interval, = 1  CI, when considering the difference between two results
Table of Confidence Intervals
Number of Standard Deviations difference for each confidence interval, for each test condition
 
CI 
p 
CI 
p 
CI 
p 
 
95% 
<0.05 
99.0% 
,0.01 
99.9% 
<0.001 
x  u 
1.96 
2.58 
3.29 
a  b 
2.77 
3.64 
4.65 
There is a probability calculator available in Sheet A21 in the Excel file, Series 1  Serum B12 Investigation, which may be downloaded by selecting Access Documents under Evidence.
Chart of Probabilities
Chart A21
You can view a larger chart in a new window by selecting the link shown above the chart.
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